Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2019, Page: 111-119
Dimensions of Learning: Adults Watching the Youth TV Series “Skam”
Jannike Vik, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Christin T?nseth, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Received: Nov. 5, 2019;       Accepted: Nov. 26, 2019;       Published: Dec. 11, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijecs.20190406.13      View  282      Downloads  105
Formal, non-formal and informal learning all fall under the concept of lifelong learning. These refer to different contexts, processes and outcomes of learning. TV-watching, for instance, can be a learning context promoting both transformative learning and identity development. Many adults were enthusiastic about watching the Norwegian TV youth series “Skam” (Shame), which was originally intended for youths between the ages of 15 to 16. We found it interesting that adults watched the series and wanted to find out what and how adults can learn from watching an entertainment program on TV, through a qualitative study. Seven adult informants aged between 30 and 55 years participated in the study. All of them watched the first seasons of “Skam” on TV. The analysis is structured around Illeris’ three-dimensional learning model. When adults watch something recognizable and emotionally engaging on TV, they can learn because their interest and motivation increases. The increased insight and awareness in form of a transformative learning process can lead to both identity development and attitudinal changes in adults. The best learning outcomes for adults appear through communication and reflection with others about what they have seen.
Informal Learning, Adult Learning, TV Series, Transformative Learning, Identity, Dimensions of Learning
To cite this article
Jannike Vik, Christin Tønseth, Dimensions of Learning: Adults Watching the Youth TV Series “Skam”, International Journal of Education, Culture and Society. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2019, pp. 111-119. doi: 10.11648/j.ijecs.20190406.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Lindtner, S. S and Skarstein; D. (eds.) (2018). Dramaserien Skam: analytiske perspektiver og didaktiske muligheter. [The drama series ‘Skam’: analytical perspectives and didactic possibilities. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
Kosenko, K. and Layboy, J. (2018). The Instructional Capacity of Reality Television: Learning Survival Strategies from Survival Shows. Athens Journal of Mass Media and Communications, 4 (3), pp. 193-202.
Schuhen, M. and Neubauer, M. (2015). Economic education via consumer advice programs? Informal learning based on the example of the television help format ‘Out of Debt’. Citizenship, Social and Economic Education, 14 (3) pp. 193–202.
Illeris, K. (2012). L?ring [Learning]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S. and Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.
Alvermann, D. and Hagood, M. (2000). Critical media literacy: Research, theory and practice in “new times”. Journal of Educational Research, 93, pp. 193-205.
Wright, R. R. & Sandlin, J. A. (2009a). Cult TV, Hip Hop, Shape-Shifters, and Vampire Slayers. A Review of the Literature at the Intersection of Adult Education and popular Culture. Adult Education Quarterly, 59 (2), pp. 118-141.
Malcolm, J., Hodkinson, P. and Colley, H. (2003). The interrelationships between informal and formal learning. Journal of Workplace Learning; 15 (7/8). pp. 313-318.
Coffield, F. (2000). The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: The Policy Press.
Bentley, T. (1998). Learning beyond the Classroom: Education for a changing world, London: Routledge.
Marsick, V. J. and Watkins, K. (1990). Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace, London and New York: Routledge.
Dale, M. and Bell, J. (1999). Informal Learning in the Workplace. DfEE Research Report 134, London: Department for Education and Employment.
McGiveney, V. (1999). Informal Learning in the Community. A trigger for change and development, Leicester: NIACE.
Armstrong, P. (2000). All things bold and beautiful: Research adult learning through soaps. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Adult Education Research Conference. University of Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 16-20.
Armstrong, P. (2005). Managing diversity in the workplace: Representations of difference in The Office. Proceedings of the Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults, University of Sussex. Sussex, United Kingdom.
Rogers, E. E. (2002). Waiting to exhale. African American Women and Adult Learning through Movies. Paper, presented at the annual meeting of the Adult Education Research Conference (43d, Raleigh, NC), pp. 326-332.
Sandlin, J. A. (2005). Spend smart, live rich? A critical analysis of the consumer education lifestyle magazine Budget Living and its readers’ forums. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Adult Education Research Conference. Athens, Georgia (pp. 387-392).
Tisdell, E. J. and Thompson, P. M. (2005). The role of pop culture and entertainment media in adult education practice. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Adult Education Research Conference. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, pp. 425-432.
Tisdell, E. J. and Thompson, P. M. (2006). Crashing into pop culture in dealing with diversity: Adult education and critical media literacy about movies and television. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Adult Education Research Conference. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 397-402.
Tisdell, E. J. and Thompson, P. M. (2007). From a different angle: The role of pop culture in teaching for diversity and critical media literacy in adult education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26, pp. 351-673.
Wright, R. R. (2006a). A different definition of boob-tube: What Dr. Catherine Gale, of The Avengers, taught women. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Adult Education Research Conference. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 471-476.
Wright, R. R. (2006b). Popular culture, cult TV, and gender resistance: Informal learning from prime-time feminism. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults. All Saints College, Leeds, United Kingdom, pp. 449-464.
Wright, R. R. (2007a). Learning empowerment, resistance and female identity development from popular television: Trans-women tell stories of trans-formation. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Adult Education Research Conference. Mt. Saint Vincent University, Nova Scotia, Canada, pp. 517-522.
Wright, R. R. (2007b). The Avengers, public pedagogy and the development of British women’s consciousness. In: Tisdell, E. J., Thompson, P. M. (Eds.) New directions in adult and continuing education: No. 115. Popular culture and adult education. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 63-73.
Wright, R. R. and Sandlin, J. A. (2009a). Cult TV, Hip Hop, Shape-Shifters, and Vampire Slayers. A Review of the Literature at the Intersection of Adult Education and popular Culture. Adult Education Quarterly, 59 (2), pp. 118-141.
Giroux, H. (2002). Breaking into the movies. Malden: MA, Blackwell.
Jarvis, C. and Burr, V. (2012). The Transformative Potential of Popular Television: The Case of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Journal of Transformative Education, 9 (3) pp. 165-182.
Engen, T. O. (2010). Tilpasset oppl?ring: utkast til en faglig forst?else [Costumized training: draft to a professional understanding]. In: G. Berg & K. Nes (Red.), Tilpasset oppl?ring-st?tte til l?ring [Costumized training – learning support]. Vallset: Oplandske Bokforlag.
Dysthe, O. (2007). The challenges in new assessments in a new culture. In: A. Havnes, and L. McDowell (Eds.), Balancing dilemmas in assessment and learning in contemporary education, pp. 15-32. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Knowles, M. S. (1970). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy. New York: Associated Press.
Illeris, K. (2013). Transformativ l?ring & identitet [Transformative learning & identity]. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.
Illeris, K. (2014). Transformative learning re-defined: as changes in elements of the identity. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 33 (5), pp. 573-586.
Skrefsrud, T-A. (2012). ? v?re l?rer i interkulturell kontekst. Om dialogens betydning for l?rerkompetansen. [To be a teacher in an intercultural context – the meaning of dialogue to the teacher competence]. Trondheim: PhD thesis NTNU.
Katzenelson, B. (2004). Drivkr?fter, f?lelser og erkendelse. [Driving forces, emotion and cognition]. K?benhavn: Hans Reitzel.
Mezirow, J. and Marsick, V. (1978). Education for Perspective Transformation. New York: Center for Adult Education.
Mezirow, J. (2005). At l?re at t?nke som en voksen. [Learning to think like an Adult]. In: K. Illeris og S. Berri (red.): Tekster om voksenl?ring [Teksts about Adult learning]. K?benhavn: Roskilde Universitetsforlag.
Jarvis, C. (2012). Fiction, empathy and lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong learning, 31 (6), pp. 743-758.
Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as transformation: critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ryen, A. (2012). Det kvalitative intervjuet. Fra vitenskapsteori til feltarbeid. [The Qualitative interview. From science theory to fieldwork]. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, p. 99.
Tjora, A. (2012). Kvalitative forskningsmetoder i praksis. [Qualitative research methods in practice]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Thagaard, T. (2013). Systematikk og innlevelse. En innf?ring i kvalitativ metode. [Systematics and immersion. An introduction to qualitative methods]. 4. utg. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
Johannessen, A., Tufte, P. A. and Christoffersen, L. (2011). Introduksjon til samfunnsvitenskapelig metode. [Introduction to the method in social science]. Oslo: Abstrakt forlag AS.
Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a Comprehensive Theory of Human Learning. London: Routledge.
Skaalvik, E. and Skaalvik, S. (2005). Skolen som l?ringsarena: selvoppfatning, motivasjon og l?ring. [The school as Learning arena: self-perception, motivation and learning]. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Sandlin, J. A., Wright, R. R. and Clark, C. (2011). Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development Through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy. Adult Education Quarterly, 63 (1), pp. 3-23.
Mezirow, J. (2003). Transformative learning as discourse. Journal of transformative education, 1 (1), pp. 58-63.
Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers: challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Brookfield, S. D. (2000). Transformative Learning as Ideology Critique. In: J. Mezirow et al. Learning as Transformation – Critical perspectives on a Theory in progress. San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass.
Tisdell, E. J. (2008). Critical Media Literacy and Transformative Learning Drawing on Pop Culture and Entertainment Media in Teaching for Diversity in Adult Higher Education. Journal of Transformative Education Volume, 6 (1), pp. 48-67.
Aarsand, L. A. (2011). Parents, expertise and identity work: the media conceptualized as a lifelong learning practice. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 19 (3), pp. 435-455.
Foucault, M. (1970). Diskursens orden. [The Discourse order]. Oslo: Spartacus Forlag AS.
Browse journals by subject